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There are many specialty areas in the field of physical therapy; common specializations that rely heavily on restoring, maintaining and building balance include geriatric physical therapy, neurological physical therapy, orthopedic physical therapy and pediatric physical therapy. Geriatric physical therapy focuses on developing programs to help increase fitness levels, reduce pain and restore mobility in people affected by issues associated with normal adult aging, including arthritis, osteoporosis, hip and joint replacement, and balance disorders, as well as cancers, Alzheimer's disease and incontinence. Neurological physical therapists specialize in working with people who have neurological disorders or diseases, such as ALS, Alzheimer's, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease, as well as individuals coping with the effects of brain injury, spinal cord injury or stroke. These effects can include poor balance, impaired vision, paralysis and immobility, and a general loss of functional independence. Orthopedic physical therapy is probably the type that most people think about when they hear the term “physical therapy.” Orthopedic therapists diagnose, manage, and treat musculoskeletal disorders and injuries, and they rehabilitate patients after orthopedic surgery. Orthopedic therapists leverage strength training, joint mobilizations, heat and cold, and electrical stimulation to support and treat patients suffering injuries or diseases that affect the muscles, bones, ligaments, or tendons. Pediatric physical therapists are specialized in the dealing with congenital, developmental, neuromuscular, skeletal, or acquired disorders or diseases in children. Pediatric physical therapy treatments help improve gross and fine motor skills, balance, coordination, strength and endurance.